Water is the most important element for life on earth. But due to its abundant nature, it is wasted and not thought of its conservation which has led to the situation of its reducing quality and scarcity. It has now become the question of survival to look towards traditional or new methods for its conservation.
To look at conserving the water, the water available through rain is the most common source of freely available water which is pure and abundant. The idea of rainwater harvesting is not new and has been practiced since traditions.
Defining rainwater harvesting
Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting and storing the rainwater under the ground for further use .
Why underground the rainwater?
Many reasons can be attached to favour this question like:
- It is an economical source of water supply
- It is sustainable and a reliable source
- It is universally available
- More the underground water bed less will be the situations of drought
- It is the source for dry weather rivers and streams
- It is less likely to experience pollution
- It is purer in respect to bacterial contamination
- Needs less treatment before use
- Has more health benefits as compared to surface water
- Less turbid and coloured
- It is free from pathogens
Why rainwater harvesting?
There are multiple reasons for rainwater harvesting;
- To increase ground water table
- To conserve surface water wastage during monsoon
- To minimise soil erosion
- To teach the habit of water conservation
How to harvest rainwater?
The process of rainwater harvesting includes the following components
Catchment surface –
This is usually the hard surface – a rooftop or other raised solid surface. The amount of water harvested depends certain factors like on the amount of rain, the size of the surface from where the water is collected and the slope of the catchment area.
The distribution system-
It is the gutters or the water spouts from which the collected rainwater is passed to the storage tanks or underground pits
Leaf screens and roof washers-
This is recommended to remove the impurities from the water like leaves, bird droppings, and dust.
Storage tanks –
This is the most important part of the process. The tanks come in wide range of price, size and material to choose from. These tanks can be placed under or above the ground.
Certain factors should be thought about while placing the tanks:
- The storage tanks should be kept away from direct sunlight to avoid growth of algae
- It should be placed closer to areas of use to reduce the distance and eliminate wastage of excess cost
- It should be placed on stable and level area to avoid spilling and learning and collapsing
- The tanks should also be placed close to the areas of use and supply line to reduce the distance over which the water is delivered.